Individuals Societies and Opportunities: A New Integrative Model of Delinquency and Crime

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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In this work a new integrative model of crime, named triple risk of crime model (or TRD), is proposed. The model is not considered competitive and contradictory with traditional theories of crime. Instead of it, this is conceived as a more global structure, susceptible of incorporating different explanation processes of criminal behavior. This proposal takes its bases from the analyses on social support as hinge for prevention, from the situational theories of crime, and, more widely, from the criminological research on risk and protection factors, which are re-conceptualized here as risk dimensions. All the risk dimensions (defined from couples of present risk and protection factors) are grouped exhaustively in three categories of risks: a) personals, b) about the received ?pro-social support?, and c) concerned to crime opportunities. It is considered that the unique combination in every individual of elements from these three risk categories hurls specific criminogenic processes (in consonance with classical theories of crime), which determine his ?antisocial motivation? and his ?antisocial behavior risk?. From this, the TRD model defines both the individual risk of antisocial behavior and the social risk of crime. Some empirical results on this model are also presented.

Author(s): Santiago REDONDO

EXPERIENCE WITH OLDER PARTNERS AND THE CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN CHILD CARE CENTER

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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From the theoretical perspective of Lev Vygotsky learning about the relation between reasing and development, this paper discusses the understanding of 250 families about the role of daycare in the process of educating and caring for their children. The research was conducted in a daycare center located in a middle-class neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, that only enrolls children between 04 months and 05 years of age. This paper discusses the expectations that families have when they talk to their children at the the initial interview with the psychologist at the Center The relationship between the childs age and the most common concern among families will be discussed here, in light of a vygotskian approach. We believe that families have different expectations and knowledge about learning and development according to the age of their children. The recognition of these factors by practitioners of the institution is essential so that we can give support to them in understanding and assisting he development process as well as bringing themselves to work with children in the facility. We believe that the environment in daycare and the relationship established with the families may promote the acquisition of knowledge about development of children by parents. To draw strategies for both theachers and families based on the notion of zone of proximal development, such as discussion groups with parents and caregivers, lectures, newsletters, individual and collective meetings with families,. Our results allow us to conclude that the younger the child, the more families expect that the focus of daycare stay on his/her basic needs and abilities. Meeting the basic needs of the child, and seeing to childrens growth, incorporates families concern about the educational activities.

Author(s): Vera Maria Vasconcellos , Cassia Cristina Barreto , Ana Rosa Moreira

How do children develop: Data from higher education students

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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What are the developmental aspects of early childhood identified and valued by students of the Third-year Childhood Education in the year 2008/2009? This study is a continuation of a study on the development and learning in early childhood valued by students of Initial Teacher Education in Childhood Education. The process of human development is a complex process that the result of several factors - biological, psychological, social and cultural - to be changes in the subjects at the level of your thinking, behavior and structure (Tavares, Pereira, Gomes Monteiro & Gomes , 2007). We asked 50 female students from the School of Education and Social Sciences (Leiria - Portugal) to do a review work about this subject. They made some theoretical research: ?How do children in daycare develop and learn?? Through content analysis we found information from development characteristics. Authorization was sought for all students to perform the study. The data show that students understand the early childhood development as psycho-physiological changes that occur in children over the first three years of life. Making an analysis of the various dimensions of human development presented in the review work, we found that the students relate with greater frequency characteristics of physical-motor development of children compared to other dimensions (cognitive, linguistic and socio-emotional). The socio-emotional domain is the second dimension with a larger number of frequency. These data lead us to question why this divergence of values and also what teaching strategies that can be worked with students to support them to understand the child as a whole. We believe that more and better are childs knowledge, more and better learning opportunities educators offer them. Keywords: development, early childhood, childhood education, learning, higher education

Author(s): SoNIA CORREIA, ISABEL SIMOES DIAS AND PATR?CIA MARCELINO

IN-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF SOUTH AFRICAN CHILDREN

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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Physical activity guidelines for the maintenance of health and wellbeing recommend that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily (WHO, 2010). In South Africa, community sport and recreation facilities and opportunities are meagre in areas previously disadvantaged by apartheid. Schools in these communities should, therefore, be primary sites for enabling children to meet the minimum activity recommended. However, their role in promoting physical activity (PA) has been hampered by the marginalization of physical education in the school curriculum and a decline in extra-curricular sports provision (Van Deventer, 2007). Aim: To investigate childrens physical activity patterns during a school day in relation to meeting daily recommended guidelines. Method: A total of 112 children (boys n=53; girls n=59), from Grades 3 to 6 (aged 8 to 12) from 3 disadvantaged schools participated in the study. Physical activity was measured over 5 consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. PA data representing the whole school day and recess periods were examined. Results: Children accumulated 35 minutes of in-school MVPA, with 95% not meeting 60 minutes of MVPA a day. Recess accounted for 47% of MVPA. Significant declines were recorded across grades and ages: Grade 6s accumulated only 20 minutes of MVPA. Boys participated in significantly more MVPA than girls (boys=37.99 ? 6.81 min, girls=32.14 ? 7.19 min). Conclusion: The low levels of in-school MVPA amongst boys and girls, as well as the marked decline at Grade 6, are causes for concern. Schools should play a pivotal role in the provision of PA to combat the health risks associated with increasingly sedentary lifestyles. Schools need to increase PA through the provision of quality physical education, and find cost effective ways of promoting school-day PA.

Author(s): Cheryl Walter

Family Learning in Interactive Galleries in Art Museums

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017

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This paper focuses on current research investigating the value of family-based, interactive galleries in art museums. Specifically, the presenter describes a large-scale, 3-year study across three art museums designed to better understand who uses these galleries, in what ways, and how the experience impacts families. Prior Perspectives or Theory Much research has focused on family learning over the last decade, however, most of it comes from studies conducted in science centers and childrens museums. Relatively little is known about family learning in art museums, despite the fact that more than 90% of art museums nationwide offer specialized programming for families. In addition to programming, increasing numbers of art museums are targeting families through dedicated interactive galleries, intended to "hook" parents and children into the museum and offer them a place to explore, engage, and interact with each other around works of art. Funded in 2007 by the Institute for Museum and Library Services, FLING (Family Learning in INteractive Galleries) is a research-based collaborative with three sites ? the Speed Museum of Art, Louisville, KY; the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA; and the Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Nashville, TN. Across all three of these art museums, researchers are investigating the impact of dedicated, interactive galleries for families. Specifically, two research studies are being conducted within the FLING collaborative ? one qualitative and one quantitative. this paper focuses on the quantitative study, designed to answer four overarching research questions: 1. Who are the families who visit interactive galleries in art museums? 2. Why do families visit these galleries? 3. How do families situate their visit to an interactive gallery within their overall museum experience? 4. What do families value about their visit to an interactive gallery in an art museum? Multiple methods are being used to answer these research questions, including face-to-face interviews and online questionnaires (N=800 per site). Importance Results from this study will provide insight into the learning expectations and outcomes for familybased galleries in art museums. The presenter will share methods and metrics for measuring the perceived value of interactive galleries for families, and highlight emerging results and their implications for the conceptualization and design of family-based galleries in art museums.

Author(s): Jessica J. Luke

Mapping Many Voices - Self-Organizing Maps as a Tool for Creating Dialogue Among Visitors and Stakeholders

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017

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The paper analyzes a new kind of visitor feedback tool, a self-organizing map (SOM), which was tried out by Heureka, the Finnish Science Centre, when exhibiting Scenes of Silence (or Dialogue in Silence) in 2007-2008. SOM is a visualisation technique that shows multidimensional information on a two-dimensional map, enabling to get the big picture without losing nuances of the data. The paper will evaluate the potential of this new technology in the light of the Dialogue in Silence experience, and how it should be further developed. Prior Perspectives or Theory When Heureka presented the powerful exhibition Dialogue in the Dark (2000-2001), the guest books were filled with thrilled comments, reflecting the immersive, emotional and transformative experience of being guided by a blind person in total darkness. The need to express was an obvious impact of the dark, but enlightening, experience. For the other socially powerful experience, Scenes of Silence (or Dialogue in Silence), where hearing visitors are guided by deaf guides through a silent experience, Heureka wanted to widen and deepen the ways of collecting visitor feedback. We wanted to go further and set a platform for dialogue for visitors, non-visitors and the deaf ambassadors, the animators of the experience. For this goal a virtual guest book was set up. It collected personal data ? age, gender, level of sign language skills ? and then asked the user about how she/he relates to silence, sign language, deaf people and hearing implants. This multidimensional information (answers to 8 questions) was then used to locate all the persons on an attitude map. The map showed the user his/her individual location in relation to all the other people who have answered the questions. The closer the people are on the map, the more similarly they have answered the questions. Importance The use of self-organizing map was designed to map the attitudes of the Dialogue in Silence visitors and to offer them a platform for communication among themselves and with the deaf guides of the exhibition. The attitude map attracted 2500 people, out of whom 1615 completed the whole survey and received their location on the attitude map. The sign language users, 281 people, formed quite a clear group on the attitude map. On the other hand, some of them were a bit in the margins and indicated the fact that the group is not totally homogenous. Our next SOM application at Heureka, the Science Changing the World exhibition (opening April 2010), will invite visitors to share their opinions about ethical and societal issues deriving from modern research. In this application, opinion leaders (e.g. intellectuals, politicians and religious leaders) will serve as reference points on the attitude maps for visitors.

Author(s): Mikko Myllykoski

TEACHER IDENTITY-FORMING PROCESS IN JAPANESE PUBLIC NURSERY SCHOOL

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017

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This research intends to find out the teacher identity-forming process in public nursery school by using TEM (Trajectory Equifinality Model) and examine the features of the formation process. As a result, it is shown that the forming process is divided into perceptive, formative and tentative stages, and that transfer to other nursery school becomes the catalyst for teachers to make the concept of ideal childcare to establish their individual identity as nursery teachers. Study on the features of the forming process indicates that: (1) identity-forming process is not only performed personally within the teacher but also largely affected by another person or the practice community consisting of nusery shool teachers; (2) distinctive practice provided by each nursery school serve as a base for teacher identity-forming process.

Author(s): Taku Kousokabe

Memory work: immigrants in Sweden and the practise of remembrance during the end of the 20th century

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Mar 2017

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What do migrants bring with them when they migrate, and how are those items of memorabilia arranged into narratives of origin, migration, loss and identity? How are experiences of migration and Diaspora mediated from one generation to another? What is told and by whom? What is silenced and who is excluded from the right to remember? The focus of this preparatory paper is to chart how memory is arranged in the context of migration. The main aim is to bring forward the practice of the transition of people ? the arranging of memories and the transmission of a narrative that will serve coming generations with guidelines of how to live (how one is to remember ones origin, what that means to ones identity, how one is to behave as a member of an ethnic minority community, etc). More specifically, thus, the study will analyse how memory is arranged into a narrative of identity. Through the discussion of identity, key concepts (such as, authenticity and hybridity) will surface. The theoretical discussion will revolve around questions of nation, migration and gender, and the ethics of memory. An extended scholarship has illuminated the central role which women play in the creation and mediation of migration and ethnic-belonging narratives. Resting on such research, my study will contribute to a further discussion of the construction of narratives of identity. Narratives, as well as the components and composition of the narrative, are often the responsibility of women ? a responsibility that is transmitted from mothers to daughters.

Author(s): Despina Tzimoula

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS IN JAPAN:RESEARCH ON TEACHERS NARRATIVES

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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Research purpose: The professional development of teachers constitutes a key to early childhood education (ECE). This research underscores the importance of enhancing the quality of ECE and then discusses the training of teachers, especially via in-services, as a particularly crucial topic. The practical knowledge brought by experienced teachers tends to be implicit, context-dependent, and physical in nature. It has been sometimes argued that knowledge taught in the traditional lecture courses offered during teacher training is too difficult to adapt to real kindergarten classrooms. Indeed, actual in-service classroom experience is a significant contributor to the future development of teachers. This study focused on the process of professional development by analyzing teachers narratives. Method: The study consisted of two separate interviews with nine teachers working at one kindergarten. The first interviews were conducted in 2005, and the second were conducted in 2011. Each interview lasted 1 to 2 hours. Teachers were requested to reflect on their teaching experiences, starting with their first year of teaching and continuing through recent years. The responses and comments were qualitatively analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Kinoshita, 2003). Results: Novice teachers experienced difficulties with making judgments and solving problems upon encountering unexpected situations and needed short-term on-site support from experienced teachers. Moreover, novices found it difficult to recognize and focus on the problem at hand. Although teachers talked about the same event in both interviews, the narratives provided in the first and second interviews differed from each other, suggesting that teachers created a more practical perspective as they gained teaching experience. This narrative approach helped teachers to recognize their own changes, thereby bringing their professional development into consciousness.

Author(s): Takako Noguchi

Marriage migration among young individuals ? why less frequent?

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017

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Family immigrants accounted for 40 per cent of the non-Nordic immigration to Norway during the period 1990-2008. This type of immigration has increased, with four times as many family immigrants arriving in Norway in 2008 than in 1990. These immigrants are often divided into two groups: those who are here to be reunited with family and those who are here to establish a family through marriage to someone living in Norway. Families established among young reference persons (the term Statistics Norway uses to refer to the person behind the family immigrants reason for coming to Norway) are particularly interesting in a political context, as setting a higher age limit for family establishment, for example 24 years, is a recurring theme in Norwegian political debate. The figures clearly show that the number of families established with reference persons under the age of 24 is not on the rise, despite the number of young unmarried persons aged 18-23 seeing a marked increase, particularly among the second generation. This is partly due to the fact that todays second generation is marrying later rather than earlier in life. For instance, 19 per cent of 21-23 year-old Norwegianborn women with Pakistani parents were married at the start of 2009, which is half the number in 1998 (40 per cent). This is probably also related to the fact that more and more second generation immigrants are taking higher education and therefore postponing family formation.

Author(s): Kristin Henriksen