Business models and innovation in agritourism

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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Abstract
Agritourism is a significant part of the tourism sector, especially in rural areas, and is a context which represents some particular opportunities as well as some challenges. However, tourism industry is so different from the primary agricultural production that combining traditional agriculture and tourism will inevitably involve introduction of a new business model. In the same vein, tourism is an extremely competitive sector and, therefore, tourism firms competitiveness depends on their innovativeness (Sundbo, Orfila?Sintes and SOrensen, 2007). Furthermore, the amount of conceptual and empirical studies on the development of tourism?oriented businesses in the farm sector is limited. The purpose of this paper is to study agritourism firms to find out how farmers incorporate tourism business into their activities, i.e what kinds of business models farmers do within agritourism use and what is the importance of these models for innovation?

Author(s): Einar Lier Madsen, Evgueni Vinogradov

GOING GREEN IS NOT ENOUGH: IR IN 21ST CENTURY ASIA

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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In order to tackle three critical issues, namely, high unemployment, a worsening income distribution and global warming, simultaneously, many governments around the world have adopted the strategy of promoting a green economy. Recently, many businesses have also been turning themselves into green businesses to strengthen their competitiveness. In view of the consistent decline in trade union membership worldwide, some have argued that trade unions should also go green by helping their employers become green businesses and therefore helping their members to get green jobs which are more stable, better paid and that provide better working conditions than traditional jobs. However, there is no guarantee that green jobs are more stable and better paid than traditional jobs. Therefore, there has also arisen an argument that Asian countries should look to their own culture and search for a different type of IR system which is a better fit for their own culture and able to provide more stable and better jobs.

Author(s): DR. JOSEPH S. LEE

INTERFACING INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT THEORY

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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The growing complexity of information systems and temporal limitations to their development period have contributed to reduce the probability of success with the final product. The dynamic of these systems is marked by rapid change and constant alterations. A result of that is the fact that it is not always possible to apply correct development methodologies. This contributes to increase risk factors associated with systems development. Results of research into New Product Development have nonetheless established a connection between reduction in development cycle time and success with the final product. This paper addresses information systems development from the viewpoint of new product development theory. Factors such as clarity of project objectives or adequate requirement specification contribute to reduce both new product development cycle time and information system development risks.

Author(s): Dulce Magalhaes de Sa

Functionalities of machining optimizer system in relation to the decision support system

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017

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Currently, the authors see different approaches to developing optimization of machining processes. The procedures created or modi ed, based on the appropriateness of cutting parameters according to the binomial cost/productivity. Alongside this, the authors developed, a system called Machining System Optimizer (MOS), which was developed to assist the complicated task of optimization of machining processes. The aim of this paper is to present the features of MOS for decision support system and how it helps in the process of machining to make the most correct decision for the production line.

Author(s): Elesandro Baptista

Payments for Ecosystem Services in Ecological Economics and the context of a Green Economy

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017

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In a recently published article, Bina and La Camera (2011) analyse the various international strategies as responses to the financial and climate change ?double crisis?. They show that while the rhetoric embraces terms like ?green economy?, ?green growth?, ?sustainable development?, or ?green new deal? the underlying assumption of economic theory remain standard neoclassical and Keynesian economics. Luks (1998 ) already highlighted the importance of rhetorics as part of the scientific endeavor. In the case of the Green Economy and its conceptual sisters, it seems that rhetorics do play a more important role than conceptual novelty. Increasing ecological, but also economic and social, disruptions result primarily from human action. Especially with regard to biodiversity conservation, ?appropriate solutions need to involve partnerships, not only between ecologists and economists, but also from a broad range of disciplines? (Dasgupta et al. 2000). The aim of the discipline of ecological economics is to bridge this gap as to create partnerships for sustainable development. For societal transitions towards human development and ecological integrity, three conceptual shifts in economics are necessary: heterodox approaches; qualitative research; and considerations for justice (inter- and intra-generational). Both Ecological and Evolutionary economics respond to each of these criteria and are thus apt tools for exploring transdisciplinary conversations between ecology and economics. Past conversations between ecologists and economics have led often to a shift towards market-based instruments and commodification of ecosystem functions leaving out the ecological discourse in biodiversity policy (Spash, ESEE 2011). As one instrument of policies for sustainable development, the concept of payments for ecosystem services (PES) has recently become more and more prominent. In this respect, PES is often put forward as a policy instrument that achieves the shift towards a green economy. Yet, different schools of thought in respect to PES exist according to Tacconi (in press): the environmental economics school, the ecological economics school and those rejecting the PES mechanism. The paper therefore analyses the role of PES in respect to the green economy debate. To what extent the instrument of payments for ecosystem services allows for transdisciplinary conversations between economics and ecology? The paper addresses the economic component of sustainable development and its relation to the environment and society. Key question is: how to change the way economies work in order to implement sustainable development and are PES schemes appropriate instruments? Or: are PES apt instruments so that ecological and economic modalities of time and space (Altvater, 1994) are in harmony?

Author(s): Moritz C. Remig

THE ROLE OF TOURISM IN LONG-TERM ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017

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On account of numerous benefits that arise from tourism development, many countries have recognized tourism as a catalyst for long-term economic development and social revitalization. From the standpoint of developing countries, tourism is seen as an important source of income, employment opportunities, foreign exchange earnings, tax revenues, and other economic benefits. At the same time, tourism is well-known for its social benefits related to the improvement of the quality of life of the host communities, international recognition and valorisation of the local cultural heritage, improvement of education opportunities, poverty alleviation, and other issues. The interest in socio-economic impacts of tourism has grown substantially over the last two decades as the economic growth became an imperative for most developing countries, while social impacts of tourism development have reached the point at which the scientific intervention is urgently needed to preserve social and cultural values in vulnerable tourist receiving areas. This paper discusses the role of tourism in changing economic and social environments in developing countries, and outlines some major opportunities for tourism development as well as possible threats of uncontrolled expansion of tourism-related activities that must be taken into account while setting up a new strategy of economic and social recovery. The issues discussed in this paper are relevant to developing countries that increasingly rely on tourism as a panacea for achieving a wide array of economic and social goals. As a developing country, but also as a country with a long tradition in tourism development, Croatia is used as a case study to illustrate the level of countrys dependency on tourism. The paper concludes by suggesting that scientific impact assessment continuous market research and strategic planning of tourism development are necessary in order to take advantage of the opportunities, minimize negative impacts, and finally, to ensure long-term economic and social development.

Author(s): Oliver Kesar

FROM KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TO LEARNING ORGANIZATION TO INNOVATION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017

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This paper examines the role of transformational leadership in moving an organisation from being a knowledge based, learning organisation to become an innovative company. Important features of the leader such as ability to assist in developing and accommodating the implementation of knowledge management techniques, learning organisation concepts and innovation protocols will be discussed in this paper. This paper demonstrates that shifting from organisational learning to becoming an innovative company involves a unique transformation leadership. In that regards, the paper also demonstrates that organisations need to create, capture, transfer, and mobilize knowledge before it can be used be used for innovation. Although technology supports the latter, these are primarily social processes within a cultural environment, and cultural change, however necessary, is a particularly challenging undertaking for the transformational leadership. The paper will present results of a study in assessing how leaders of successful companies found innovation as a way to create value for customers, that is a way to help customers obtain value for the goods and/or services. The paper also considers key innovation processes in those successful companies and examines how transformational leaders have used those processes to deliver value in a way and how they used innovation as opportunity to: 1. Address the needs of customers (especially customers in emerging markets) who could be denied access to markets entirely because existing solutions are too expensive or complicated for them such as in emerging markets. 2. Leveraging new technology in the companys business model around innovation. 3. Respond to a shifting basis of competition and thus defining new acceptable solution in dynamic markets.

Author(s): FAWZY SOLIMAN

Tourism Spatial Structures ? Formation and Importance for Destination Marketing

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017

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The goal of the study is to identify tourism spatial structures, their development processes and interaction for spatial consideration of place marketing. Authors Hall and Page (2009) stress that many of previous researches about a life cycle of touristic area have totally ignored spatial dimension of it. Referring to Urry (2004) who calls mobility ?the new social physics?, Hall (2005a) argues that if we use the analogy with physics, the quantitative mobility of people can be understood by classical physics of Newton. It gives characteristics and prognoses of flow of travelling tourists in international scale with rather high level of trustability. However expressions of micro level in behaviour of an individual can be seen as quanta physics with more uncertain approach to choice of destination of an individual traveller. Probably significant addition of tourism geographers to a general knowledge about spatial expressions of individual travellers would light up person and vice versa (Hall, 2005b). This statement served as one of main impulses for to start this research that substantiates the spatial system of tourism and linkage between its processes and place marketing. Another connection is discrepancy of formal and functional regional borders. It is strenuous to solute it, though probably it could stimulate organizing of destinations more adjusted to a market situation. Therefore identifying of tourism spatial structures as such is not seen as an end in itself, but it is orientated to searching of practically applicable results. Using cognitive mapping techniques, spatial analysis of the visitors flows and tourism-related process with GIS and broad set of data from interviews of tourism service providers and visitors an in-depth study of local tourism destinations and place marketing has been carried out. Latvia has been taken as a case study thus the approach could be repeated extensively. Local tourism destination is presumed as functional region and linkages between tourism cluster initiatives are investigated stressing co-operation among stakeholders as one of the spatial functions. Although the spatial shape of the tourism destination is primarily dependent on sequent choices made by tourists, there is systematic logic to identify it on the basis of the functional tourism region. Strategic cooperation between proximal municipalities based on the destination characteristics, common tourism flows, and existing (or encouraging) network of stakeholders is essential for destination marketing. The study established that the elaborated approach of tourism spatial analysis and interpretation of obtained results provides a wide range of meaningful use for the planning, managing and promoting of tourism spatial structures and developing tourism cluster initiatives. Results of this research have been integrated into the strategic outline of Latvian tourism management system.

Author(s): Andris Klepers

Technological innovation in R&D management ? in the search of new research approaches

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Mar 2017

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In the face of increasing impact of technological innovation on the way R&D is managed and organized, there is a notable lack of research on the mechanisms of such change. The paper links insights from IT and organizational literature on the study of ICT innovations in organizations with R&D Management research deriving three main suggestions for new research approaches: Firstly, the epistemological positioning of the research should take into account the dynamic structuration or co-evolution between technology, ways of working and organizational change; secondly, the object of analysis should be structured ?vertically? with multi-level analysis of technology, working routines, project processes and organizational aspects. These levels of analysis should thirdly be organized around experiments for the study of innovation. The arguments are illustrated through a case study for a research design that can potentially contribute to understanding the relationship between technological innovation and changes in R&D management.

Author(s): Hermann Loh, Bernhard Katzy

HEAD INJURY CRITERION (HIC) MODEL AS A FUNCTION OF OPERATIONAL TESTING AND TRIM MANUFACTURING VARIABLES

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Mar 2017

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A model was developed for the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) as a function of two operational testing variables and five trim manufacturing variables utilizing an incomplete block design. An analysis of variance and residual were conducted. Minitab? was utilized to evaluate the main effects on HIC. The significant variables were the dummy head drop calibration (HC), and the dummy head approach angle (Oa). However, packing pressure and injection speed had slight effects on HIC. Since the variables interaction effects were not significant on the analysis of the estimated coefficients, a new mathematical model was developed to include only the significant variables (HIC = 8.48614x107 Hc ?2.2577 Oa 0.35173). An optimization of HIC was conducted. The Hybrid III dummy head provides a more robust tool with respect to HIC measurements, and it is suitable for approach angles 5 to 20 degrees.

Author(s): W. Jaradat, K. Taraman, S. Taraman, J. Hassan, G. Nusholtz