Emerging science for nuclear test monitoring

Engineering Sciences and Technology Journal (ESTJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Ongoing research and development efforts enable future capabilities to better counter threats posed by weapons of mass destruction. Cooperative research with global partners improves international collaboration to detect and characterize weapons of mass destruction, and enhances a host nations sustainment of scientific programs. Recent topics that are relevant to the CTBTO identify science focus areas to address challenges of an on-site inspection. Recent topics have included research for a number of basic science areas. For example radiation sensitive materials that change their optical properties and novel sensing materials used as indicators of container or seal integrity between inspections will be explored. These novel sensing materials can help provide unique assurance against tampering to assist verification. In addition integration of multiple sensor technologies and techniques using advanced mathematical methods to improve seismic location algorithms and modeling of explosions. More general topics that are planned for the future and that are relevant to the International Monitoring System and International Data Center include: alternative remote sensing materials and methods; new methods and modeling for radiochemical analysis, sample collection, concentration and selectivity; and novel long-range methods for example environmental changes.

Author(s): Joanna Ingraham, Justin McIntyre

New tiltmeter developed in Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Engineering Sciences and Technology Journal (ESTJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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A tiltmeter has been developed at the Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences as the regular equipment for geophysical observatories and other observation posts. The tiltmeter is intended for relative measurement of tilts of a terrestrial surface in two mutually perpendicular directions for the purpose of studying tidal deformations, research of modern earth movements, research of harbingers of earthquakes in the form of abnormal inclinations, and also deformations of the bases and parts of large engineering constructions. The tiltmeter which has been developed possesses record-breaking high precision 0.0001 arc sec. in a range of measurement +/-2 arc sec.; thus it has extremely high long-term tool stability (tool drift of "zero" no more +/-1 arc sec. per year). The combination of these major technical characteristics makes this tiltmeter an outstanding achievement in the field of geophysical instrument making. Sensor action is based on the principle of a vertical pendulum. In the sensor design a metal pendulum (length about 100 mm) is suspended on an elastic suspension over the ceramic part fixed on the case. The pendulum has a natural period of 0.6 seconds and air damping. It is isolated from the case and together with a ceramic part forms the differential two coordinate measuring condenser. On a ceramic casing four metal plates serving as facings of the measuring condenser are fixed. At an inclination of the sensor case the pendulum moves with respect to the condenser facings proportionally, making an inclination from these axes. As a result the measuring condenser records signals proportional to the angle of slope of the sensor on its sensitivity axes ?N-S? and ?E-W?.

Author(s): Sergey Matcievsky, Igor Vasilev, Valentin Gravirov

EVALUATION OF TRACK GEOMETRY STANDARDS BY NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS PROPOSAL FOR EVOLUTIONS

Engineering Sciences and Technology Journal (ESTJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Track geometry standards have been enforced for more than ten years in the French Railway Network. Limit values were derived from experience, and up to now they remain a good guarantee of train running safety. The very high speed intensive commercial circulation (V > 300kph) on long distance on high-speed lines as well as the advent of new types of vehicle could require determining limit values adapted to these new conditions. The study consists of using vehicle simulation software for evaluating the consistency between the current track geometry standards and the safety criteria for vehicle acceptance. The possibility of using such software for determining track geometry standards has also been investigated. The influence of track defects on the behaviour of a TGV, running at different speeds and in various conditions, has been analysed for different criteria of defects such as amplitude, wavelength and shape. The study shows that current track geometry standards appropriately cover the studied cases in spite of results close to the limit for very-short-length defects. Moreover, defect wavelength and shape both seem to be important factors in vehicle dynamics. This study has also helped to define a new method to update track geometry standards (V > 22 0kph) and to explore needs for a new very high-speed standard (V > 300kph).

Author(s): V Bourgoin, F Coudert

Individuals Societies and Opportunities: A New Integrative Model of Delinquency and Crime

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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In this work a new integrative model of crime, named triple risk of crime model (or TRD), is proposed. The model is not considered competitive and contradictory with traditional theories of crime. Instead of it, this is conceived as a more global structure, susceptible of incorporating different explanation processes of criminal behavior. This proposal takes its bases from the analyses on social support as hinge for prevention, from the situational theories of crime, and, more widely, from the criminological research on risk and protection factors, which are re-conceptualized here as risk dimensions. All the risk dimensions (defined from couples of present risk and protection factors) are grouped exhaustively in three categories of risks: a) personals, b) about the received ?pro-social support?, and c) concerned to crime opportunities. It is considered that the unique combination in every individual of elements from these three risk categories hurls specific criminogenic processes (in consonance with classical theories of crime), which determine his ?antisocial motivation? and his ?antisocial behavior risk?. From this, the TRD model defines both the individual risk of antisocial behavior and the social risk of crime. Some empirical results on this model are also presented.

Author(s): Santiago REDONDO

EXPERIENCE WITH OLDER PARTNERS AND THE CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN CHILD CARE CENTER

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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From the theoretical perspective of Lev Vygotsky learning about the relation between reasing and development, this paper discusses the understanding of 250 families about the role of daycare in the process of educating and caring for their children. The research was conducted in a daycare center located in a middle-class neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, that only enrolls children between 04 months and 05 years of age. This paper discusses the expectations that families have when they talk to their children at the the initial interview with the psychologist at the Center The relationship between the childs age and the most common concern among families will be discussed here, in light of a vygotskian approach. We believe that families have different expectations and knowledge about learning and development according to the age of their children. The recognition of these factors by practitioners of the institution is essential so that we can give support to them in understanding and assisting he development process as well as bringing themselves to work with children in the facility. We believe that the environment in daycare and the relationship established with the families may promote the acquisition of knowledge about development of children by parents. To draw strategies for both theachers and families based on the notion of zone of proximal development, such as discussion groups with parents and caregivers, lectures, newsletters, individual and collective meetings with families,. Our results allow us to conclude that the younger the child, the more families expect that the focus of daycare stay on his/her basic needs and abilities. Meeting the basic needs of the child, and seeing to childrens growth, incorporates families concern about the educational activities.

Author(s): Vera Maria Vasconcellos , Cassia Cristina Barreto , Ana Rosa Moreira

How do children develop: Data from higher education students

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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What are the developmental aspects of early childhood identified and valued by students of the Third-year Childhood Education in the year 2008/2009? This study is a continuation of a study on the development and learning in early childhood valued by students of Initial Teacher Education in Childhood Education. The process of human development is a complex process that the result of several factors - biological, psychological, social and cultural - to be changes in the subjects at the level of your thinking, behavior and structure (Tavares, Pereira, Gomes Monteiro & Gomes , 2007). We asked 50 female students from the School of Education and Social Sciences (Leiria - Portugal) to do a review work about this subject. They made some theoretical research: ?How do children in daycare develop and learn?? Through content analysis we found information from development characteristics. Authorization was sought for all students to perform the study. The data show that students understand the early childhood development as psycho-physiological changes that occur in children over the first three years of life. Making an analysis of the various dimensions of human development presented in the review work, we found that the students relate with greater frequency characteristics of physical-motor development of children compared to other dimensions (cognitive, linguistic and socio-emotional). The socio-emotional domain is the second dimension with a larger number of frequency. These data lead us to question why this divergence of values and also what teaching strategies that can be worked with students to support them to understand the child as a whole. We believe that more and better are childs knowledge, more and better learning opportunities educators offer them. Keywords: development, early childhood, childhood education, learning, higher education

Author(s): SoNIA CORREIA, ISABEL SIMOES DIAS AND PATR?CIA MARCELINO

Business models and innovation in agritourism

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Agritourism is a significant part of the tourism sector, especially in rural areas, and is a context which represents some particular opportunities as well as some challenges. However, tourism industry is so different from the primary agricultural production that combining traditional agriculture and tourism will inevitably involve introduction of a new business model. In the same vein, tourism is an extremely competitive sector and, therefore, tourism firms competitiveness depends on their innovativeness (Sundbo, Orfila?Sintes and SOrensen, 2007). Furthermore, the amount of conceptual and empirical studies on the development of tourism?oriented businesses in the farm sector is limited. The purpose of this paper is to study agritourism firms to find out how farmers incorporate tourism business into their activities, i.e what kinds of business models farmers do within agritourism use and what is the importance of these models for innovation?

Author(s): Einar Lier Madsen, Evgueni Vinogradov

GOING GREEN IS NOT ENOUGH: IR IN 21ST CENTURY ASIA

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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In order to tackle three critical issues, namely, high unemployment, a worsening income distribution and global warming, simultaneously, many governments around the world have adopted the strategy of promoting a green economy. Recently, many businesses have also been turning themselves into green businesses to strengthen their competitiveness. In view of the consistent decline in trade union membership worldwide, some have argued that trade unions should also go green by helping their employers become green businesses and therefore helping their members to get green jobs which are more stable, better paid and that provide better working conditions than traditional jobs. However, there is no guarantee that green jobs are more stable and better paid than traditional jobs. Therefore, there has also arisen an argument that Asian countries should look to their own culture and search for a different type of IR system which is a better fit for their own culture and able to provide more stable and better jobs.

Author(s): DR. JOSEPH S. LEE

INTERFACING INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT THEORY

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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The growing complexity of information systems and temporal limitations to their development period have contributed to reduce the probability of success with the final product. The dynamic of these systems is marked by rapid change and constant alterations. A result of that is the fact that it is not always possible to apply correct development methodologies. This contributes to increase risk factors associated with systems development. Results of research into New Product Development have nonetheless established a connection between reduction in development cycle time and success with the final product. This paper addresses information systems development from the viewpoint of new product development theory. Factors such as clarity of project objectives or adequate requirement specification contribute to reduce both new product development cycle time and information system development risks.

Author(s): Dulce Magalhaes de Sa

Characterizing compounds affecting ?F508 CFTR folding and conformation

Medicine Sciences and Healthcare Journal (MSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Abstract
The F508 deletion in CFTR changes the proteins conformation, as a result of which it can no longer travel to the plasma membrane but is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In search of new drugs to rescue the ?F508 phenotype many compound screens have been done and promising candidates have been identified, but their molecular mechanisms of action are still unknown. We developed an in vitro assay to follow conformational changes in CFTR and more specifically, in the F508-containing NBD1 domain. We subject in vitro translated radiolabeled NBD1 to limited proteolysis to examine conformational differences between wt and ?F508 NBD1. We clearly detect changes in conformation and are optimizing this assay further for examination of compound effects. To find out whether the screened compounds can affect NBD1 folding directly or indirectly we will add the drug at various stages of the limited proteolysis assay. Different compounds have been tested, including corrector 4a, which did not affect NBD1 folding. We concluded that these compounds do not rescue ?F508 CFTR by directly correcting NBD1, but must either affect CFTR domain assembly or act by changing the cell, for instance by activating a crucial chaperone

Author(s): Florence Peters, Elena Ganusova, Hanneke Hoelen, Mieko Otsu, Ineke Braakman

Implication of calnexin in the F508del-CFTR correction by miglustat

Medicine Sciences and Healthcare Journal (MSHJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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The most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF), F508del, results in CFTR (CF transmembrane conductance regulator) protein that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Previously, we have shown that miglustat corrects the defective trafficking of F508del-CFTR and hypothesized that by inhibiting the interaction of F508del-CFTR with calnexin, a lectin implicated in the ERQC (ER quality control), miglustat prevents the retention and the degradation of F508del-CFTR (Norez et al., 2006). However, others contest the role of calnexin in the F508del-CFTR retention (Okiyoneda et al., 2008). The purpose of the study was i) to determine the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) calnexin treatment on endogenous F508del-CFTR trafficking, ii) to compare these results with a miglustat induced-correction, iii) to understand whether calnexin is implicated in the F508del-CFTR trafficking and in its correction induced by miglustat. The human CF tracheal cell line CF-KM4 was transfected with a siRNA calnexin (0.5?g/mL, 72h), a siRNA control (0.5?g/mL) or was treated by miglustat (100?M, 2h). Then, the level of calnexin expression was tested by biochemical technique and consequences on CFTR and ENaC activities were assessed using single-cell fluorescence imaging. The results were compared with those obtained on untreated- and reverted- (CF-KM4 stably transfected with the CFTR wild type) CF-KM4 cells. We showed that decreasing calnexin expression (~ 75%) restores F508del-CFTR activity at the plasma membrane in correlation with a decrease (66%) of ENaC activity. Moreover, we found a 1.5 fold higher level of correction induced by miglustat than with siRNA calnexin : this level corresponds to the level of CFTR and ENaC activities measured in reverted CF-KM4. In conclusion, this work is in favor of a role of calnexin in the F508del-CFTR retention and confirms calnexin as a valuable CF therapeutic target. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that inhibition of calnexin/F508del-CFTR interaction is probably not solely sufficient to fully explain the effects of miglustat raising the hypothesis that another molecular target for this drug exists.

Author(s): Dorothee Raveau, Anne Cantereau, Frederic Becq, Caroline Norez

NEONATAL CORD BLOOD SCREENING WITH HPLC - TOWARDS COMPREHENSIVE AND IMPROVED PATIENT CARE OF SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN OMAn

Medicine Sciences and Healthcare Journal (MSHJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017
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Oman is a country with a population comprising of a wide range of ethnic groups, high rates of consanguinity and increased incidences of inter-cousin marriages. There is an increased prevalence of hemoglobinopathies which is of growing importance as knowledge of a population structure can be a unique aid in planning genetic services. The aim of this study was to establish neonatal cord blood screening in the Sultanate of Oman, in an effort to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies by a costeffective method. High performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] is a powerful tool to screen newborns for hemoglobinopathies. Neonatal screening includes cord blood samples collection, screening, and follow up of all newborns with abnormal results. A total of 7837 consecutive cord blood samples were screened for presence of possible hemoglobinopathies by HPLC using Biorad Variant ?? program between April 2005 and March 2007. Complete blood counts [CBC] were also obtained on Cell Dyn 4000 automated blood cell counter. All samples were then processed to isolate and store mononuclear leukocytes for subsequent molecular diagnostics. The findings indicated a 47.07% incidence of ??thalassemia, based on low mean cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] on the CBC and significant amounts of Hb Barts on HPLC. The overall incidence of other hemoglobinopathies was 9.87%, with 5.47% incidence of sickle hemoglobin. On HPLC, D-window, E-window and C-window were present in 0.93%, 0.77% and 0.06% of the samples respectively. Since HPLC cannot diagnose beta thalassemia major at birth, in samples with HbA below 10%, the beta globin gene was directly sequenced including the promoter, all exons and introns in these samples. Amongst 206 (2.62%) samples sequenced, beta thalassemia trait was confirmed in 201 cases and 5 cases were found to be homozygous for beta thalassemia major. Additionally, direct sequencing of all abnormal samples with HbS [n=429], HbD [n=73], HbE [n=42], and HbC [n=5] was also performed on ABI Prism 3100 genetic analyzer to assign the correct genotype status to these subjects and use the same to validate the HPLC results. The significantly high incidence of hemoglobinopathies in newborns in the Sultanate of Oman emphasizes the value of neonatal cord blood screening to be implemented as the first step in the national strategy towards total management of hemoglobinopathies including early diagnosis, comprehensive clinical care and counseling of the affected families. The results of this large study wound indicate that using HPLC [<2 USD/sample] is a cost effective method. Moreover, prescreening of both parents and selecting only samples of neonatal cord blood from newborns with either parent having an underlying genetic trait for hemoglobinopathy would result in the a huge cost saving to the tune of over 90% as compared to universal neonatal cord blood screening and can be recommended as a highly cost-effective method targeted to screen only the abnormal samples.

Author(s): Al-Kindi S., Pathare A.V., Al-Madhani A., Al-Zadjali S., Krishnamoorthy R.

A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN DESIGN ACTIVITY

Art Studies and Architectural Journal (ASAJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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The purpose of this research is to clarify the element of organizational structure and development process involved in design development to achieve creating highly advanced, innovative design and establishing a coherent corporate design identity thorough making a deep analysis of cases in Japanese electronics manufactures. Therefore, through considering prior studies about product development and design management, this research extracts an analytical perspective to make analysis organizational structure and development process involved in design development. This research mainly describes two points. Firstly, this research describes organizational structures and development processes that two Japanese electronics manufactures adopt. Secondly, this research describes designers communication with other department members and other designers in that organizational structures and development processes. Finally, this research makes analysis of these cases through the analysis perspective. As a result, this research finds out what natures of communications are needed among members in order to create highly advanced, innovative design and establish coherent corporate design identity. This research also finds out the element of organizational structure and development process to affect such communications among members.

Author(s): Yosuke KANNO

Architecture of Performance Buildings: Dealing with Demands of Contemporary Play

Art Studies and Architectural Journal (ASAJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Observed from the prospective of Architectural design, typology of performance buildings, especially theatre buildings, suffers a serious stagnation. Causes that influenced this state of play could be tracked for in development divergence of architecture on one side, and the play itself on the other. Although these two factors coexisted through history, at some point the play took swing in its evolution, occupying all available fields of plausible development, while architecture stopped at expected physical limits. Today, the generally accepted fact is that there is no strictly defined type of theatre buildings that is capable of embracing the contemporary play. The question that reveals the essence of problem is: Does the play actually need the building in any sense? This paper points out the problem of overall state and potentials of Buildings for stage performances in Serbia today, aiming to find answers for future approach to built heritage considering demands of the contemporary play. Potentials of these buildings are not to be understood in term of utilization of existing structures, but in term of detailed analytical approach toward future projects. Examining the conversion of solid, closed theatre boxes into almost undefined open spaces, according to needs and demands of the play, we tried to understand the current situation, and give an architectural answer to it. What is architecture to do in a situation when it has already reached its limits of variations as a form, while the function / program is still modifying and evolving without predictable end? While designing National Theatre in Subotica, the design team carefully observed the logic of designing fa?ade configurations. As the project of restoration, reconstruction, adaptation and annex of theatre building, situated in the very core of the towns centre, took 20 years from architectural competition to its construction, architects faced a challenging task to design a buildings skin that envelopes its 20 years old content of carefully planned functions. This project represents the finest case in our national practice of architecture trying to handle its developing art function on one side, and interacting with the city at the other. Application of glass panels that form a transparent membrane between theatre inside building and the town outside opened a possibility for architecture to take the role of mediator in this town-theatre interaction demand. We could say that architecture cleverly stepped away in secondary role, leaving the function of the building to bring out the everlasting changes of theatre play to the town. It seems that the time has come for a major attitude change - perhaps it is time to use ephemeral structures to answer ephemeral questions.

Author(s): Dragana Konstantinovic, Miljana Zekovic

Active Listening to Music ? Methodology and School Practice in

Art Studies and Architectural Journal (ASAJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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The reform carried out in Polish school system in 1999 involved profound changes into the educational way from Kindergarten to Dissertation. The education system comprises: pre-school institutions, primary schools, lower secondary schools, upper secondary schools and post- secondary schools. The main aim of music education in schools is to stimulate comprehensive development of all students. The contents of teaching are, among others, folk, classical and pop music; main musical terminology; variety of national music ? including regional music and the diversity of other countries music. Music teaching methods include most of all, organizing and developing individual and group musical activities among students ? singing, playing instruments, and listening to music. Research and experiments show that listening to music should be introduced at the earliest age because it stimulates general and music development in young children. Listening to and getting acquainted with music is a prerequisite for shaping music abilities, first of all music memory, training concentration and music imagination. Active method of listening to music is a way to teach and learn music. Children learn through doing, exploring, playing and improvising. Music may be accompanied by clapping and stamping or by drums, sticks and other children instruments. It is an integration of movement, dance and language. One is involved not only as a listener but also as participant. During working out pieces of different composers students use movement (simple dance forms, choreography inspired by historical dance), instrumental improvisation (playing recorder, Orff instruments) and melodic recitation. Music teachers in Poland often use active methods of teaching. According to the new educational basis it is also possible to create authors teaching programs.

Author(s): Gabriela Karin Konkol

Wiring of Escherichia coli With Different Electron Transport Mediators

Natural Sciences & Environment Journal (NSEJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Gram-negative Escherichia coli strain JM109 looks promising for energy generation in biofuel cells. The cells we are using over express the di-heme membrane protein from Bacillus subtilis succinate:quinone reductase. This protein has two b-type hemes: heme bL with a midpoint potential of -132 mV vs NHE and heme bH with a midpoint potential of+16 mV vs NHE. The protein is present in the inner cell membrane and can potentially be used to enhance the wiring between the cell and different electron transfer mediators. The role of mediators in microbial biosensors and biofuel cells is to take electrons from the oxidizing enzymes and/or respiratory chain and transport them to the surface of the electrode and thus to replace the natural electron acceptor - oxygen, in the case of aerobic bacteria for example. In this way artificial electron shuttles can enhance electron transfer between microbial cells and electrodes. It is well known that different water-soluble mediators such as 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) or ferricyanide (FeCN) and hydrophobic ferrocene derivatives can be effectively used for coupling microbial metabolism and electrodes . One recent trend in wiring of living cells and electrodes is to use polymeric mediators, which exhibit efficient electron shuttling properties for multiple layers of microbial cells [2,3]. In the current study the application of different artificial electron transport mediators for efficient electrical wiring of gram-negative bacteria E. coli JM109 were investigated. Different characteristics of the system containing a graphite electrode modified with cells, a Ag|AgCl (0.1 M KCl) electrode and a platinum wire used as reference and auxiliary electrodes, respectively, were evaluated in flow analysis mode when glucose was used as a substrate. The influence of pH of buffer solution and presence of oxygen on the current response was evaluated. E. coli JM109 cells immobilized on the surface of graphite electrode did not show any direct electron transport. We have not been able to show any current response from the cells in the presence of DCPIP-solution or ferrocene immobilized on the surface of the electrode. However we obtained very good results with a flexible osmium redox polymeric mediator and the water-soluble mediator - ferricyanide.

Author(s): Sergey Alferov, Vasile Comana, Tobias Gustavssonc, Cecilia Hagerhallc, Lo Gortona

Urban floods in the Arouca village (Portugal): Influence of surface runoff network and land use dynamics

Natural Sciences & Environment Journal (NSEJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Urban flooding is a phenomenon which reflects the increasing urbanization process of the territory. Although not intensively studied in Portugal, urban flood episodes are growing throughout the country in frequency and affected areas. This type of flooding, assuming in many cases the flash floods characteristics, is the result of water concentration in topographically depressed areas during episodes of intense rainfall over short time. This floods events are enhanced by soil sealing and by malfunction or undersized pluvial rainwater drainage systems. The most critical phase of these events occurs when the capacity of this underground drainage system is exceeded, causing the inversion in flow direction and consequently, its concentration in nodal points and emergence at the surface. To understand the dynamics of the surface runoff in the Arouca urban area (Portugal), it was analysed the role played by each element of the urban grid towards the surface runoff process. For this, it was considered: (1) the slopes that favor the rapid and intense spread of the flow, (2) the topography and the urban morphology that interfere directly in the surface drainage pattern. By the interpretation of aerial photos and recent orthophotos, it was also analysed the evolution of land use in the last five decades, aiming to understand the effect that gradual sealing promoted in the increase of the superficial flow component. The collected inventory has enabled the identification of the most susceptible areas in the village and the exposed elements to this risk. The most problematic areas corresponds to the lower areas of the village and some streets where occurs a dual concentration of the runoff, i.e., the surface and the pluvial drainage flows. On the other hand, there was an increase of 21% on artificial surfaces, as a consequence of forest and agricultural areas decline between 1958 and 2005. The chosen methodological approach and the obtained results are a contribution to improve the land planning on the Arouca municipality.

Author(s): In?s Marafuz,Alberto Gomes

The importance of selecting relevant impact categories and alignment of LCIA methods with the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Reporting Categories

Natural Sciences & Environment Journal (NSEJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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International awareness and application of life cycle assessment (LCA) as an objective framework and method to assess true environmental and human health impacts has grown substantially in the advent of the new millennium. The framework of LCA, a holistic system based approach to identify and assess impacts associated with products, processes and services, is readily understood and widely supported. In practice, the methods that underlie the interpretation of impacts are deficient in scope of the relevant impacts that have been identified in the broader aspects of sustainability and ecosystem services. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to bring awareness to the importance of selecting relevant and appropriate impact categories when conducting life cycle assessment studies; second, to present an approach to align the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods to a broader, worldwide perspective that includes the concerns of both developed and developing nations. As such, the proposed approach to alignment is based on the UNEP Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) Framework. Key benefits include the promotion of a global consensus by researchers and policy makers; a means of integration with the broader international community of sustainability experts in government, industry and non-governmental organizations; and most important achieve a means of validating the efforts to raise human well-being and reduce abject poverty through life cycle assessment based on the work and comprehensive data and analysis that has been done through the MA efforts.

Author(s): Thomas Gloria

Empirical Likelihood in the framework of Parametric Likelihood

Mathematics and Computer Sciences Journal (MCSJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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We use a method of parameterized sub-family of probability distributions to connect empirical likelihood (EL) with parametric likelihoods and discuss the EL inference in the framework of parametric likelihood inference. The EL inference benefits from theoretical developments in the parametric case. We illustrate the method with general estimating equations and consider M-type linear regression as an exam- ple of practical applications where the proposed method promotes conditional EL inference with parameter orthogonality in place of profile EL inference.

Author(s): Mi-Ok Kim

Dimension Augmenting Vector Machine: A new General Classier System for Large p Small n problem

Mathematics and Computer Sciences Journal (MCSJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Support vector machine (SVM) and other reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) based classifier systems are drawing much attention recently due to its robustness and generalization capability. All of these approaches construct classifier based on training sample in a high dimensional space by using all available dimensions. SVM achieves huge data compression by selecting only few observations lying in the boundary of the classifier function. However when the number of observations is not very large (small n) but the number of dimensions are very large (large p) then it is not necessary that all available dimensions are carrying equal information in the classification context. Selection of only useful fraction of available dimensions will result in huge data compression. In this paper we have come up with an algorithmic approach by means of which such an optimal set of dimensions could be selected. We have reversed and modified the solution proposed by Zhu and Hastie in the context of Import Vector Machine (IVM), to select an optimal sub model by using only few observations. For large p small n domain (e.g. Bioinformatics) our method compares different trans-dimensional model to come up with optimal set of dimensions to build the final classifier.

Author(s): Dipak K. Dey, Samiran Ghosh, Yazhen Wang

Threshold Calibration for High-Dimensional Classification with Class Imbalanced Data

Mathematics and Computer Sciences Journal (MCSJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017
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Abstract
Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of subjects in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the smaller class. We previously showed that additional challenges exist when the data are both class-imbalanced and high dimensional, i.e., when the number of samples is smaller than the number of measured variables. Most classification methods base the classification rule on a numerical variable that is produced by the classification algorithm, for example on the probability for a sample to belong to a class (as for penalized logistic regression), on the proportion of samples among the nearest neighbors that belong to a class (for k-NN), on the proportion of bootstrap trees that classified the sample in a given class (for random forests). If the value of this numerical variable is above a pre-specified threshold, then the new sample is classified in a given class. We evaluated if we could improve the performance on imbalanced data of some classifiers by estimating the threshold value upon which their classification rule is based. We addressed the issue on how choose the threshold value. We estimated the threshold (on a training set) maximizing the Youdens index (sensitivity + specificity-1), the positive or the negative predictive value, or their sum. The results obtained on independent test sets were evaluated both in terms of class-specific predictive accuracies and of class-specific predictive values, and we compared the empirically determined thresholds with the thresholds commonly used in practice. In this talk we will show the simulation-based results obtained using penalized logistic regression models.

Author(s): Lara Lusa, Rok Blagus

GROWTH AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA AS AFFECTED BY EM, RHIZOBIUM AND PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA

Life and Agriculture Sciences Journal (LASJ), Volume 2, Jan 2017
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Abstract
Chickpea seeds and seedlings were treated with Rhizobium leguminosarum, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Pseudomonas and Effective microorganisms (EM) and Bokashi alone and in combinations. Plants were harvested during vegetative phase to determine chlorophyll, sugar, protein and the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and peroxidase and endogenous level of phytohormones from leaves of chickpea. Treatment with EM alone and in combination with Bokashi increased the shoot biomass, number of nodules, chlorophyll content, sugar content, peroxidase and catalase activity. Rhizobium used alone and in various combinations with EM and Bokashi exhibited significant increase over control. All the treatments exhibited significant increase in IAA and GA content of leaves. Combined treatment with R and EM can be implicated for crop improvement.

Author(s): S. AHMAD, A. BANO

EFFECT OF EUCALYPTUS LITTER ON GROWTH AND NODULATION OF VIGNA RADIATA

Life and Agriculture Sciences Journal (LASJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017
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Abstract The effect of Eucalyptus leaf litter on growth and root nodulation of mung bean (Vigna radiata {L.} R. Wilczek) was studied in pot experiment under natural conditions. There were five Eucalyptus litter treatments (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% on v/v basis) applied in garden soil. The experiment was set up in completely randomized design with nine replicates for each treatment at each harvest. The four harvests were taken at the following developmental/physiological stages: start of flowering, start of pod formation, middle of pod formation, and seed maturity. A number of growth parameters were used to collect data at each harvest. The data was subjected to statistical analysis by applying Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The Eucalyptus litter treatments generally showed adverse effect on various parameters of vegetative growth, reproductive growth and root nodulation of mung bean. The adverse effect increased with increasing Eucalyptus litter treatments. The results highlighted negative effect of Eucalyptus plantation on the growth and yield of mung bean.

Author(s): F. SHAHEEN, J. I. MIRZA

Feeding of bears ? carnivores by phylogeny but omnivores by ecology

Life and Agriculture Sciences Journal (LASJ), Volume 2, Feb 2017
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Abstract
into existence in the 19th century. Nevertheless, scientifically based knowledge on bear nutrition in terms of nutritional composition of natural food, digestion and requirements for growth, maintenance and reproduction are rare. The diet for different bear species in captivity ? with the exception of polar bears, sloth bears and giant pandas ? is often still very similar, consisting of fruits, mainly apples and pears, and vegetables, mainly carrots, to varying degrees supplemented by animal matters of different origin. This composition is based on the assumption of an omnivorous feeding style without considering species differences in terms of food composition and seasonal (and hormonally triggered) fluctuations in food intake. In consequence, nutrient composition and amounts of captive diets can differ significantly from what can be expected in the wild. In tropical bears, this feeding practice often results in obese bears, whereas bears of the moderate and higher altitudes are too lean during certain seasons. The feeding technique ? one main meal with or without several scatter feeds per day offered in similar quantities over the whole year - does apply more to a tropical carnivore than to an omnivorous carnivore with a simple digestive tract, but behavioural and physiological adaptations to survive on a mainly vegetarian diet in different climates. This technique is one of the causes for the development of stereotypic behaviours, which are frequently observed in ursids. The few scientific studies on ursid nutrition focus on digestion of the omnivorous brown bears and American black bears and the carnivorous polar bears. Similar studies are lacking for the other more tropical species with somewhat different food niches and specializations either towards more vegetarian (Andean bears) or more insectivorous diets (sun bear and sloth bear). The rapidly growing knowledge on feeding ecology of all ursid species in combination with their morphological features will be used to propose diets and feeding techniques which approach the species specific behavioural and nutritional requirements more closely. Examples of diets and feeding techniques will be provided for brown bears, polar bears, Andean and sun bears. Finally fields for research on bear feeding and nutrition will be briefly outlined.

Author(s): Lydia Kolter